Not only the yarn, or the difference in cut- or un cut pile, defines the appearance of the surface structure, but the distance between, or the length of the loops also determines the design.
In the pink spool-knitted cord yarn you can easily see the difference between low and high loop. The distance between the loops is the same.
The space that a yarn gets is important as well. In the Corale by Danskina a so-called J-cut is used. The long pile you see at the top, is half of the complete pile. The short pile is hidden underneath, the short side of the J. The short cut sample is tufted in the same way, but there you see the whole pile.
Tufting is a technique whereby a tufting needle and a tufting gun are used to prick or shoot yarn through a cloth by means of compressed air. At the back of the cloth a loop pile is formed that can be cut as well.
The pile always has to be fixed to the fabric, because you would otherwise be able to just pull the thread out again. Fixation is usually done with latex.
In pass-tufting and machine-tufting a number of tufting needles are placed next to each other and the thread is pricked through the fabric, as with the manual system. No compressed air is used.